High blood pressure or hypertension is a chronic condition in which blood pressure increases. Hypertension can occur for years without being noticed by the sufferer. In fact, without symptoms, damage to blood vessels and heart continues and has just been detected.
Hypertension can be determined by examining blood. Because hypertension often does not cause symptoms and is more often experienced by an elderly person. Adults, especially those over the age of 40 and at high risk, are advised to have at least blood tests every year.
Diagnosis of high blood pressure or hypertension is very easy, ie by using a blood pressure measuring device. Here is the right blood test stage by using a blood pressure measuring device (sphygmomanometer), in order to obtain accurate results:
– Patients should not exercise, smoke, and consume beverages with caffeine 30 minutes before a blood pressure test is done.
– Patients are required to sit quietly on a chair, with feet resting on the floor.
– Make sure to urinate before doing a blood test.
– Neither doctors nor patients should speak during the examination.
– Remove the clothes covering the cuff-insertion area.
– Blood pressure is measured on both arms. For further blood pressure measurement, use an arm with a higher blood pressure to measure it.
-The measurement of blood pressure is repeated at least 2 times with a 1-2 minute break.
Doctor may perform two to three blood pressure readings, each at three or more separate meetings before diagnosing you with hypertension. This is because blood pressure usually varies throughout the day.
The measurement results are divided into four general categories:
– Normal blood pressure. Blood pressure is said to be normal if under 120/80 mm Hg.
– Prehypertension is a systolic pressure that ranges from 120-139 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure ranging from 80-89 mm Hg. Prevalence tends to worsen over time.
– Hypertension stage 1 is a systolic pressure ranging from 140 to 159 mm Hg, or diastolic pressure ranging from 90 to 99 mm Hg.
– Hypertension stage 2 is more severe. Hypertension stage 2 is a systolic pressure of 160 mm Hg or higher, or a diastolic pressure of 100 mm Hg or higher.
If necessary, the doctor may recommend investigations, such as blood tests, urine examinations, or X-rays, to see if complications have been caused by hypertension.
There are many other types of checks that can be done to support the diagnosis of hypertension. Examination of chest and heart record (EKG) is done to determine the duration of hypertension and its complication to the heart (so as to assess the existence of heart abnormalities as well). Ultrasound examination (USG) is performed to assess whether there are kidney abnormalities, anuerisma (dilation of the arteries) in the abdomen, tumors in the adrenal gland. Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is performed to see the smooth flow of blood.
After the diagnosis is made, examination of the major organs, especially blood vessels, heart, brain, and kidneys, because complications often occur in these organs. Complications of hypertension occur because of increased blood pressure that damages other organs. To determine whether there is a complication then you should perform a variety of eye examinations, heart, kidney, and brain examination.